Civil Law

Suing Someone


Talk to the person or business you are thinking about suing. Try to work things out before going to court. You can also write a “demand letter” that asks the person or business in writing what you are asking for. Get help
with a demand letter.


1. Try mediation or other alternatives to lawyers and courts. You can try mediation throughout your case,
even if it does not work now.


2. Consider if going to court can give you what you want. If you win in court, the court cannot collect the
money for you. Is the person you are suing able to pay?  If you want to sue a neighbor because the
neighbor behaves badly, will suing make the neighbor behave better? Courts cannot force good
behavior. Will the time and money it takes to go to court be worth the likely outcome? Ask yourself these questions before filing your claim so you do not find yourself worse off after suing than if you did not sue at all.


3. Learn about how small claims workout in court. Go to the courthouse and watch a small claims hearing.
That way you will know what to expect. Read this website, get help from your court's small claims advisor and use the different resources this website gives you.


4. If you decide to go to court, follow these steps:
            1) Figure Out How to Name the Defendant 

           2) Ask for Payment 
           3) Find the Right Court to File Your Claim 
           4) Fill Out Your Court Forms
           5) File Your Claim
           6) Serve Your Claim   
           7) Go to Court 

 

When Being Sued:


1. Talk to the person or business you are being sued by. Try to work things out. If you owe the other person money, pay it or try to work out a payment plan before the court date.


2. Try mediation or other alternatives to lawyers and courts. You can try mediation throughout your case,even if it does not work now.


3. Learn about how small claims workout in court. Go to the courthouse and watch a small claims hearing.That way you will know what to expect. 


4. Figure out if you are being sued in the wrong court.


5. Decide if you want to sue the person who is suing you. If you do, learn how to file a defendant &#39's claim.


6. Get ready and go to your trial.

민법 : 이름변경 / 퇴거명령 / 민사소송 / 스몰클레임

 

소액청구 소송 (Small Claim)

◇자격=소송당 개인의 경우 최고 청구금액은 10,000달러이며 규정이 간단하고 형식을 따지지 않는 재판이다. 
법인이나 정부기관의 경우 최대 5000달러까지 청구할 수 있으나 금액이 2500달러를 초과할 경우 1년에 두 번 제소할 수 있다. 
보증인을 고소할 경우에는 최고 4000달러까지 제소할 수 있으며 개인이 주정부 건축업 라이선스 위원회에 등록된 업체를 소송할 경우에 한해 7500달러까지 보증인 제소가 가능하다.

◇소송 접수 비용

소송비용은 청구 금액 및 지난 12개월 동안 접수한 사건 수에 따라 다르게 책정된다.

만약 지난 1년간 12건 이하를 접수했을 경우 1500달러까지는 30달러 1500.01~5000달러까지는 50달러 5000.01~10,000달러까지는 75달러의 비용을 법원에 내야한다. 12건 이상의 청구 소송을 했을 땐 건 당 100달러의 비용이 든다.

소액 청구 소송엔 변호사를 법정에 대동할 수 없으나 법정 출두 전이나 이후엔 도움을 받을 수 있다.

법원 홈페이지에서 스몰클레임 양식을 출력 작성한 후 법원에 직접 방문해 소장을 접수하면 20~70일 사이에 재판 날짜가 정해진다.

이때 고소인은 피 고소인의 정확한 거주지 주소를 알아야 제대로 전달될 수 있다.

소액청구 소송의 경우 자동차 사고 재산 파손 임대료 및 보증금 분쟁이나 수금 사기 관련 사건이 대부분을 차지한다.

◇재판진행

소액 청구 사건은 대부분 건당 10~15분이 소요되며 상황 설명(본인이 직접해야 하며 사건의 요점만 간단히)에 도움이 될만한 증인이나 사진 청구서 영수증 계약서 등의 증거를 제출할 수 있다.

고소인은 타인을 대신 법정에 보낼 수 없으며 본인이 직접 법정에 출두해야 한다. 그러나 배심원이나 군대 생활을 할 경우는 예외다.

만약 피고소인이 재판에 출석하지 않을 경우 자동으로 원고가 승소하게 되며 원고는 재판 판결문으로 고소인에게 원금을 돌려받을 수 있다.

단 스몰클레임은 민사소송이기 때문에 강제적인 재산회수는 불법이므로 피고소인이 부동산이나 비즈니스를 가지고 있는 경우 근저당(Judgement Lien)을 설정해 재산권에 제한을 가할 수는 있다.

또한 채무자가 지급을 거부할 경우 '콜렉션 에이전시'를 통해 밀린 금액을 회수할 수 있으며 이 경우 피고소인의 신용점수가 나빠질 수 있다.

사업체가 고소를 당했다면 소유주가 필히 법원에 출두해야하나 해당 고소 내용을 알고있는 직원이 출두할 수도 있다. 

재판관은 원고측과 피고측의 주장을 청취해 심리이후 즉시 결정을 내리거나 판결을 우편으로 발송한다.

재판 결과에 대해 원고(고소인)는 항소할 수 없으나 피고(피고소인)는 판결에 대해 항소가 가능하다.

항소를 할 경우 새로운 재판을 받아야하며 다시 증거물을 제시해야 한다. 항소시에는 변호사 대동이 가능하다.

◇청구시기 

보통 신체적 상해로 인해 제소할 경우 부상 날짜로부터 2년 내에 청구접수를 할 수 있다. 구두계약 불이행은 불이행 날짜 이후 2년 내이며 계약서 불이행의 경우 4년 이내 재산 손상의 경우 재산 피해이후 3년까지 피해보상 청구 접수가 가능하다. 사기 사건으로 금전적 피해를 입었을 경우 사기행각 발견이후 3년까지 청구 접수를 할 수 있다.

또한 정부나 공공기관을 고소할 경우 6개월 이내에 청구권을 행사해야 하며 이에 해당 기관은 45일내에 지불 결정을 내려야한다. 

만약 45일 이내에 아무런 결정이 없으면 청구를 거부했다고 간주되며 청구 거부결정 6개월 이내에 소액청구법원에 제소할 수 있다